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main page| Strategy for the development of the city as a habitat

Strategy for the development of the city as a habitat

Author
Vladimir Korbashov
Head of project workshop «Artpot»
+7(916)746-2803
1@artpot.ru
Abstract

The city is a home-streets-neighborhoods? Of course not. City without people do not exist. The city is primarily a social system that develop in the canvas organized space. The city is a complex socio-spatial-domain education.

The work summarizes the practical application of the approaches of the architecture of socio-territorial processes to strengthen the existing territorial entities.

Problems
Problem Solutions
In the existing strategies for the development of cities, specificity is not enough, the cause-effect relationship in the logical chain "Objective-tasks" is broken.

The main goal is, as a rule, the socio-economic development of the subject.

These tasks are related to the spatial development of town planning systems, urban economy, financial support for small and medium-sized businesses.

The logical connection between the solutions of these tasks and the declared goal remains for the brackets.

The reason is the lack of competences of related disciplines.

The strategy is developed by architects, city planners, economists, managers and urbanists, and the city is primarily a social education.

Connection of additional competencies of sociologists, social engineers and psychologists allows filling the gap, formulating sound development strategy tasks, having a clear logical connection with the goal - socio-economic development of the subject.

The city can not be developed by external influences.

Development on the principle of "inflicting good" is a mirage that can be observed only while the object is fed by external sources.

The true development of an object is its self-movement, an internal process, the source of which is enclosed in the most developing object.

In the world practice it is widely used Human capital as the main internal factor intensive social and economic development of cities and countries.
How can you influence people, motivate them to learn and develop?

A lot of information has been accumulated about the dependence of social systems on the structure of urban space. Behavior, people's actions depend on the subjective assessment of the place.

It is the habitat can serve the individual development of citizens and, as a result, the development of human capital.
Trigger Events open new ways for people to act, update the new levels of needs, which leads people to move.
Feature of new approaches

Many researchers in their observations of urban social systems have noted phenomena that manifest simultaneously in the social and physical space. Social and behavioral scenarios are inextricably linked with the place, its characteristics. To denote such phenomena, we use the term -"Social-territorial process".

"Social-territorial process"- a chain of inextricably linked, interdependent phenomena and events in the social and physical space. Vital activity of social systems in the canvas of organized space.

Understanding social territorial processes as a key element of the habitat opens up the possibility of a conscious impact on social systems.

The importance of social territorial processes

"Quarter South", New Vatutinki, New Moscow Typical sleeping areas
Absence of transit road and pedestrian traffic. It should be noted that the territory is not fenced.

This establishes the private-proprietary attitude of users to the territory.
Throw a cigarette butt on your lawn? Of course not.

Characterized by an increased level of social responsibility, involvement in what is happening on the territory.
Increased permeability of yard territories. The layout of the micro district provides for transit pedestrian and automobile traffic.

Thus, anonymous relationships are established in a foreign and dangerous territory.
Do you throw garbage at the entrance? Of course, it's convenient for me.

Characteristic are alienation and indifference, extremely rarefied density of street interactions.

"Wrong" behavior of people in the territory is not a consequence of the mentality or lack of education.
The same people behave differently in different territories, according to the subjective assessment of the place (nobody throws the garbage under the table).

The structure of urban space and people's behavior are inextricably linked and interdependent

 


Social-territorial process
Structure, characteristic features of organized space.
  • The nature of the background of street interactions;
  • The social scenarios tied to their place.
The social component of the habitat.
 

Social-territorial process
Background of street interactions.
  • The social scenarios tied to their place;
  • External social environment.
  • Quality of resource status of individuals;
  • The space of realized possibilities;
  • Senses to act and develop;
  • Motivation for action, development.

The purpose of the development strategy

Formation of environmental conditions that will lead to the endogenous growth of human capital as the main intensive factor in the development of the city.

City Habitat

The formulation "Development of the city as a territorial entity" accentuates the focus of attention on objects and structures expressed in space. The meaning of the actions can be blurred or completely lost, since a significant part of the tasks and solutions to development are located in a social rather than a physical space.

We suggest using a more relevant formulation "Development of the environment".

 
The city development strategy can be schematically represented as follows:


Formation of special conditions of habitat;

Events are triggers.

Multiplication of human capital;

Self-coordination and self-management in a horizontal network structure.
Endogenous socio-economic development of the city.

Development Strategy Objectives

To define the range of tasks of the development strategy, we formulate, in the most general form, a social request to the external environment:

What should people receive from the external environment to increase human capital? Means of meeting needs
  • Satisfaction of basic needs;
  • Minimizing the unproductive expenditure of time and effort;
Provision of resources;

Social, transport infrastructure;

Multifunctional filling of planning, space-spatial solutions, workstations in walking distance;

Provision of information;

  • Security, confidence in the future; Social comfort;
  • Resource state, external (main) resource make-up;
  • Motivation for socially useful activities;
  • Expansion of the space of realized opportunities;
  • Updating of new levels of needs;
  • Senses and motivations to learn, develop;
The social component of the habitat.
  • Opportunities to learn and develop;
  • Honest rules, social justice;
  • Possibilities for self-realization;
Self-organization, self-government;

Provision of information;

  • Business prospects;
  • Prospects for professional and career growth.
Favorable investment climate, development of new innovative productions.

Thus, using our new approaches, the objectives of the development strategy can be schematically represented as follows:

  1. Study of the historical and urban context;
  2. Forming an information environment serving the implementation of the development strategy;
  3. Sowing social territorial processes, which are mandatory and must have the following characteristics:
    • Multiply the number of actors of urban life;
    • Transformerait urban fabric in developing and inspiring environment, establish constructive social scenarios;
    • Multiply the number of effective elite – leaders and influencers;
    • Form the attractive investment environment.
    Thus creating environment that:
    • Fills the citizens the internal energy required for operation;
    • Brings people to the movement, extending the perceived space of possibilities and producing a motive to action motives.
  4. Verification request to the external environment, including:
    • Investments;
    • Resources, including labor;
  5. Verification request to the internal environment, including:
    • Infrastructure development;
    • Identifying and/or producing the subjects of urban life, which will lead to the achievement of the goal;
    • Identifying and/or producing entities engaged in the monitoring and evaluation of actions aimed at achieving the goal.
  6. The formation conditions under which the subjects of urban life coordinated actions will be able to satisfy the above requests.

Signs of feasible task

Specificity Elimination of discrepancies in the wording. The relevance of the wording originally laid sense.
Measurability The presence of criteria that would determine whether they are achieving the goal and to what extent.
Reachability A clear understanding of the opportunities of the city life, solving the problems of program development (PD).
Relevance
  1. The participants of the process of the PD should be definitely interested in the outcome.
  2. The obvious benefit to the environment, including the benefit to the state in the end.
Limited time An action plan without a timeline does not make sense.

Development program, a limited range of issues of urban development and building, does not make sense. It follows from the definition of "city" (Social-spatial-subject education).

Our methodological approaches include solutions in:

  • Physical space;
  • Social space.
Understanding the projected future of the continuation of the current line of development and correlation of project initiatives with a future on a scale of better/worse will adequately assess the program as a whole and its provisions in particular.

Development program Denotes the control and management of the development process of the city.
Is embodied exclusively by the subjects of urban life, acting in their own interests. The program can not be implemented "from outside", according to the principle of "causing good";
Refers to the subject of city life, carrying the functions of control and coordination. It should be noted that actors including the municipal authorities in its current form, is not designed to solve this problem;
Sold exclusively in a historical context of territorial development;
Based on a predictive model of existing lines of development. Includes an iterative sequential change;
Provides for the planning horizon at least 30 years.
Procedure
The expert group. Machinists Development Strategies (DS)
    The expert group. Machinists Development Strategies (DS)
  • Research;
  • Changes to existing planning decisions;
  • Formation of the information environment;
  • Sowing social territorial processes (including using event-triggers).
  • Acting in their own interests, the subjects of urban life* solve the problem SD;
  • Coordination of their actions in the horizontal network organizational structure.
  • Monitoring;
  • External control;
  • Adjustment SD;
  • Consecutive introduction into the formulas of separate lines of development of new participants;
  • Coordination of iterative processes.
 
Subjects of urban life
 

* - Subjects of urban life: Executive authorities, organized and spontaneous power centers, local business (local brands), media, educational institutions, public organizations, urban activists, formal and informal communities.

Research

The program can be developed solely on the basis of diverse studies of the existing situation, the historical context.

Types of studies:

  • Field research;
  • Research by action;
  • Research provocation to action.
Research results:
  • Verification of historical context;
  • Adequate assessment of the resource base, power centers, verification of the existing development/degradation line;
  • Identifying existing subjects of urban life, assessing their capabilities and ambitions;
  • Verification of urban events and conflicts;

Changes to existing planning decisions

Empirically established co-dependencies of some features of the structure of urban space and types of street interactions, sustainable social scenarios.
We use known and proven solutions in order to establish the desired social-territorial processes:

  • Articulation of pedestrian routes, multiplying the ways of cross-use of existing pedestrian traffic concentrators. Forming in them conditions for the development of small-scale street business;
  • Lowering the permeability of yard spaces, establishing conditions for the development of local (neighborhood) communities;
  • Reformatting the transport scheme to exclude (minimize) transit traffic on secondary streets;
  • Establishment and development of zones of mixed functional use;
  • Articulation of existing valuable objects. Formation of conditions for their safety, filling and development;
  • Formation of favorable conditions for the development of places of employment.

Formation of the information environment
  • Identification of existing digital information channels, including - in social networks and messengers;
  • Accumulation of information from various channels on one network resource (RSS, parsing). Organization of the technical possibility of broadcasting the most important messages to all identified information channels;
  • Moderation and SEO root information network resource;
  • Organization of the technical possibility of broadcasting the most important messages to non-digital information channels.

The purpose of the information environment is the technical ability to deliver information to a significant number of citizens as subjects of urban life, and experts (Engineers of PD).

Sowing social territorial processes

It is carried out with the help of:

  • Adjustment of existing planning decisions with a view to establishing constructive scenarios of street interactions, development of private-proprietary attitude of citizens to the territory;
  • Trigger events, during which, for a short period of time, citizens are immersed in new ways of using the territory, new ways of interaction, and in new ways solve their actual tasks. Events are moderated. As experience shows, about 50% of such events lead to the establishment of (or at the site) predictable social scenarios for a long time. In some cases this leads to a gradual transformation of spatial filling.

Implementing a horizontal network organizational structure

Any hierarchical form of management and control by the development program is an open opportunity for the development of corruption schemes.

Since the tasks of the development program in the process of their solution can change beyond recognition, a highly adaptive organizational structure is required.

Hierarchical structure Horizontal network structure

The implemented development program has attributes that literally dictate the need to use a horizontal network structure. It:

  • To the overwhelming majority of subjects of city life, the implementation of the program is beneficial / useful so that they will implement it on their own initiative;
  • The program is realized by the subjects of city life. True (endogenous) development is a self-movement of an object - an internal process, the source of which is enclosed in the most developing object;
  • The development of horizontal connections "of all with all."
The moderator of the program can serve as a representative body of self-government, which is created by the subjects of city life in order to coordinate their actions. It should be noted that the process of creating such a workable body - iterative, will take a considerable amount of time and will serve the solution of many important tasks in establishing constructive scenarios of interaction between the subjects of city life.

The first attempts to create an organ of self-government will serve as the cause of conflicts in which the intentions of the participants will manifest themselves. The task of the moderator is to translate urban conflicts into a constructive dialogue channel, and only after acquiring the skills to negotiate in these conflicts, citizens can form a functioning self-government body.

Features of approaches to the development of a master plan

The master plan is a normative document that legally fixes the projection of the city's development strategy into physical space.

Since the true development is the self-movement of the object, the principal decisions of the master plan must be produced by the authorized subject of urban life.

Thus, the development program should solve the technical problem - the creation of a subject of urban life, having the necessary competencies and authority.
 
The order of solution, schematically:
Carrying out a competition for organization and improvement of courtyard territories among local (neighborhood) communities.

Training of participants of the competition.

Formation of the initiative group from the participants of the competition, the decisive task of the development of streets, individual sections of the territory, districts of the city, which gives recommendations for the expenditure of funds for landscaping;

Further training of the participants of the initiative group.

The initiative group in a short period of time becomes an active and authoritative subject of urban life, the bearer of the competence of urban planning in the required amount.

Measurable criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the development program
  • Quality of work of the representative body of self-government (number of participants, number of meetings);
  • The number of urban conflicts manifested in the information field, the number of urban residents involved in conflicts;
  • Number of formal and informal communities;
  • Change in the value of housing stock in the secondary market;
  • The level of migration of various kinds, including - the pendulum diurnal;
  • Number of vacancies for employers physically located within the city limits. The average level of wages;
  • Number of educational projects;
  • Number of individual entrepreneurs and legal entities - taxpayers. The amount of tax;
  • Results of sociological surveys.
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